005- Roman Period
003- Roman Forts
Also known as the Black Oasis, the town of Umm al-Jimal (mother of camels) is believed to have been established by the Nabateans on a trade route around 2,000 years ago. Umm al-Jimal developed into Roman barracks around 200 CE and later expanded into forts and a town of several thousand people. Umm al-Jimal now consists of two forts at the northern and southern ends of the town, two Byzantine towers, about 15 Byzantine churches built around 600 CE, and town houses. All the structures were constructed with black basalt stones abundant in this area. Umm al-Jimal fell into ruins after an earthquake in 747 CE.
80 km northeast of Amman; 20 km east of Mafraq, near the border with Syria.