007- Early Islamic Period
At least 30 sugar mills from the Islamic Ayyubid and Mamluk periods (11th-13th century CE) are located in the Jordan Valley. The sugar industry was introduced into the valley from southern Iraq and later spread to North Africa, Spain, and the rest of Europe. The mills consist of water channels, water-powered grinding stones for crushing sugar cane, furnaces for boiling water, and storage rooms. The word sugar derives from the Arabic sukkar.
An example is at Tawahin al-Sukkar near Safi, at the southern end of the Dead Sea.