002- Iron Age Kingdoms
Located in the Citadel of present-day Amman, Rabbath Ammon (meaning the Great City of the Ammonites) was the capital of the kingdom of Ammon around the 1st millennium BCE. Over 150 Ammonite sites have been discovered around Amman, most have yet to be fully excavated. Rujm al-Malfouf is one of several Ammonite towers built around the capital in the 1st millennium BCE to defend against King David of Israel. The Citadel is also the site of structures from earlier and later periods, including early Bronze Age tombs, the world’s earliest fortifications from the 2nd millennium BCE, and the remains of the Roman temple of Hercules, a Byzantine basilica, and an Islamic Palace. The Jordan Archaeological Museum within the Citadel houses antiquities that date as far back as prehistoric times. The collection includes artifacts from Ain Ghazal and the Dead Sea Copper Scroll.
The Citadel is on Jabal al-Qal’a overlooking downtown Amman. Rujm al-Malfouf is located on Jabal Amman, beside the Department of Antiquities.