Lithification is the process in which sedimentary deposits compact under pressure and gradually become solid rock. Water passing through can deposit minerals within, cementing and altering the color of the rock (see Liesegang Banding). Cross-bedded sedimentary deposits can produce cross-hatching patterns in the rock (see Cross-bedding).
Lithified marine sediments make up the Northern Highlands, including Ajloun and Jerash. Lithified sand sediments make up much of the Southern Highlands, including Petra, Wadi Rum, and Wadi Dana.