English

Field Guide to Jordan

Geology

Geological History

Topography

Sediment

Uplift

Cross-bedding

Fold

Concretions

Fossils

Liesegang Banding

Ancient Sea

Ancient Seabed

Ancient Lakes

Fossilized Ripples

Ancient Pebbles

Impact Crater

Basins

Dead Sea

Dead Sea Intro

Dead Sea Graben

Lisan Formation

Salts and Minerals

Evaporation Ponds

Salt Formations

Health Effects

Bitumen

Pink Water

Volcanos

Volcanos Intro

Volcanic Cones

Volcanic Plugs

Lava Flow

Lava Caves

Crystals

Metal Deposits

Hot Springs

Sills and Dikes

Deserts

Deserts Intro

Aridification

Fossil Water

Desert Pavement

Desert Varnish

Erosion

Erosion Intro

Mesas

Hoodoos

Natural Bridges

Tafoni

Onion-Skin Weathering

Solution Weathering

Solution Caves

Fracture Caves

Alluvium

Alluvial Fans

Scree

Sinkholes

Rocks

Rock Identification

Granite

Basalt

Sandstone

Limestone

Mudstone and Shale

Chert and Flint

Marble

Conglomerate rock

Breccia

Archaeology

Early Inhabitants

Early Inhabitants Intro

Ain Ghazal

Beida

Dolmens

Menhirs

Kites

Iron Age Kingdoms

Iron Age Kingdoms Intro

King’s Highway

Rabbath Ammon

Deir Alla

Dibon

Lehun

Bozrah

Sela

Shrine of Prophet Aaron

Mount Nebo

Lot’s Cave

Finan Copper Mines

Greek Period

Greek Period Intro

Qasr al-Abd

Petra

Petra Intro

Siq

Treasury

Tombs

Unfinished Tomb

Theater

Great Temple

Temple of Dushara

Water

Writing

Monastery

Board Games

High Places

Byzantine Churches

Little Petra

Petroglyphs

Arab Wall

Humeima

Roman Period

Roman Period Intro

Decapolis

Decapolis Intro

Amman

Umm Qais

Pella

Jerash

Jerash Intro

Hadrian’s Arch

Hippodrome

South Gate and City Walls

Zeus Temple

Oval Plaza

South Theater

Column Styles

Colonnaded Streets

Macellum

South Tetrapylon

Cathedral

Nymphaeum

Propylaeum

Artemis Temple

Water-powered Saw

North Theater

North Tetrapylon

North Gate and Beyond

Roman Forts

Roman Forts Intro

Bshir Fort

Lejjun Fortress

Umm al-Jimal

Azraq Fort

Burqu’ Fort

Via Nova Traiana

Machaerus Fortress

Byzantine Period

Byzantine Period Intro

Baptism Site

Church of St. George

Archaeological Park

Church of the Apostles

Umm al-Rasas

Jerash Churches

Petra Churches

Iconoclasm

Early Islamic Period

Early Islamic Period Intro

Qastal Palace

Hallabat Palace

Harrana Palace

Amra Palace

The Palace

Toba Palace

Mushatta Palace

Ayla

Sugar Mills

Crusades

Crusades Intro

Shobak Castle

Wadi Musa Castle

Habis and High Place Castles

Karak Castle

Aqaba Fort

Rabadh Castle

Ottoman Period

Ottoman Period Intro

Ma’an Fort

Dab’a Fort

Qatranah Fort

Hasa Fort

Qasr Shabib

Jiza Fort

Hejaz Railway

Environment

Habitats

Habitats Intro

Northern Highlands

Southern Highlands

Wadis

Reservoirs

Dead Sea

Deserts

Jordan River Valley

Red Sea

Human Environment

Human Impact

Desertification

Water Shortage

Litter and Pollution

Urban Sprawl

Hunting

Introduced Species

Threatened Species

Field Etiquette

Parks and Reserves

Parks and Reserves Intro

Shomari Reserve

Azraq Wetland Reserve

Mujib Nature Reserve

Ajloun Woodland Reserve

Dana Nature Reserve

Wadi Rum Protected Area

Dibbin Nature Reserve

Climate

Climate Intro

Khamseen

Flash Flood

Dust Devil

Sky and Clouds

Sun Navigation

Star Navigation

Cloud Type

Cloud Type Intro

Cirrus

Cumulus

Stratus

Cloud Altitude

High Clouds

Middle Clouds

Low Clouds

Towering Clouds

Flora

Classification

Algae

Moss

Mushroom

Lichen

Plant Gall

Fasciation

Flower to Fruit

Arum Family

Sago Pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata)

Celery Family

Celery Family Intro

Madonna Flower (Artedia squamata)

Hairy-seeded Chervil (Chaerophyllum trichospermum)

Syrian Eryngo (Eryngium creticum)

Ferula (Ferula)

Common Parsley (Petroselinum crispum)

Venus-comb (Scandix pecten-veneris)

Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera)

Garlic Family

Garlic Family Intro

Black Garlic (Allium aschersonianum)

Naples Garlic (Allium neapolitanum)

Chinese Sacred Lily (Narcissus tazetta)

Sternbergia (Sternbergia)

Hyacinth Family

Hyacinth Family Intro

Bellevalia (Bellevalia)

Sea Squill (Drimia maritima)

Tassel Hyacinth (Leopoldia bicolor)

Grape Hyacinth (Muscari neglectum)

Star of Bethlehem (Ornithogalum)

Iris Family

Iris Family Intro

Winter Crocus (Crocus hyemalis)

Violet Gladiolus (Gladiolus atroviolaceus)

Italian Gladiolus (Gladiolus italicus)

Gilead Iris (Iris atrofusca)

Mesopotamian Iris (Iris mesopotamica)

Black Iris (Iris nigricans)

Vartan Iris (Iris vartanii)

Spanish Nut (Moraea sisyrinchium)

Orchid Family

Orchid Family Intro

Fan-Lipped Orchid (Anacamptis collina)

Pink Butterfly Orchid (Anacamptis papilionacea)

Sword-leaved Helleborine (Cephalanthera longifolia)

Bee Orchids (Ophrys)

Anatolian Orchid (Orchis anatolica)

Aloe vera (Aloe vera)

Yellow Asphodel (Asphodeline lutea)

Common Asphodel (Asphodelus aestivus)

Sunflower Family

Sunflower Family Intro

Thistles

Thistles Intro

Star Thistles

Star Thistles Intro (Centaurea)

Syrian Cornflower (Centaurea cyanoides)

Eryngo Star-thistle (Centaurea eryngioides)

Carline Thistles (Carlina)

Moab Cousinia (Cousinia moabitica)

Globe Thistles (Echinops)

Gundelia (Gundelia tournefortii)

Syrian Thistle (Notobasis syriaca)

Cotton Thistles (Onopordum)

Soldier Thistle (Picnomon acarna)

Spiny Cocklebur (Xanthium spinosum)

Common Cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium)

Yarrows (Achillea)

Chamomiles (Anthemis)

Gold Coins (Asteriscus)

Marigolds (Calendula)

Dwarf Chicory (Cichorium pumilum)

Aromatic Inula (Dittrichia viscosa)

Flax-leaf Fleabane (Erigeron bonariensis)

Red Everlasting (Helichrysum sanguineum)

Koelpinia (Koelpinia linearis)

Golden Chamomile (Matricaria aurea)

Wave-leaved Fleabane (Pulicaria incisa)

Pink Viper’s Grass (Scorzonera papposa)

Dandelions (Taraxacum)

Goatsbeards (Tragopogon)

Goldy-Locks (Varthemia iphionoides)

Bellflower Family

Borage Family

Borage Family Intro

Strigose Alkanet (Alkanna strigosa)

Egyptian Bugloss (Anchusa aegyptiaca)

Italian Bugloss (Anchusa azurea)

Prickly Bugloss (Anchusa strigosa)

German Madwort (Asperugo procumbens)

Blue Hound’s Tongue (Cynoglossum creticum)

Judaean Bugloss (Echium judaeum)

European Turnsole (Heliotropium europaeum)

Golden Drop (Onosma orientalis)

Comfrey (Symphytum brachycalyx)

Boissier Borage (Trichodesma boissieri)

Mustard Family

Mustard Family Intro

Buckler Mustard (Biscutella didyma)

Arugula (Eruca sativa)

Egyptian Farsetia (Farsetia aegyptiaca)

Whitetop (Lepidium draba)

Common Malcolmia (Malcolmia crenulata)

Stocks (Matthiola)

Mustards

Zilla (Zilla spinosa)

Capers (Capparis)

Ben Tree (Moringa peregrina)

Taily Weed (Ochradenus baccatus)

Ice Plant Family

Ice Plant Family Intro

Purslane-leaved Aizoon (Aizoon canariense)

Slender-leaved Iceplant (Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum)

Amaranth Family

Jointed Anabasis (Anabasis articulata)

Syrian Anabasis (Anabasis syriaca)

Nettleleaf Goosefoot (Chenopodiastrum murale)

Halothamnus (Halothamnus hierochunticus)

Thorny Saltwort (Noaea mucronata)

Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus)

Carnation Family

Carnations and Pinks (Dianthus)

Arabic Baby’s Breath (Gypsophila arabica)

Sandwort (Minuartia picta)

Algerian Tea (Paronychia argentea)

Catchflies (Silene)

Cow Basil (Vaccaria pyramidata)

Egyptian Sea-lavender (Limonium lobatum)

Knotweed (Rumex cyprius)

Common Purslane (Portulaca oleracea)

Tamarix (Tamarix)

Gourd Family

Syrian Bryony (Bryonia syriaca)

Desert Gourd (Citrullus colocynthis)

Squirting Cucumber (Ecballium elaterium)

Italian Honeysuckle (Lonicera etrusca)

Pincushion Flowers (Scabiosa)

Strawberry Trees (Arbutus)

Pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis)

Cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum)

Storax Tree (Styrax officinalis)

Legume Family

Legume Family Intro

Acacia Trees

Spiraled Acacia (Acacia raddiana)

Apple-ring Acacia (Faidherbia albida)

Umbrella Thorn Acacia (Vachellia tortilis)

Camelthorn (Alhagi maurorum)

Bean Clover (Anagyris foetida)

Milkvetches (Astragalus)

Spiny Milk-Vetch (Astragalus spinosus)

Spiny Broom (Calicotome villosa)

Carob (Ceratonia siliqua)

Common Horseshoe Vetch (Hippocrepis unisiliquosa)

Sweet Peas (Lathyrus)

Yellow Restharrow (Ononis natrix)

Spiny Restharrow (Ononis spinosa)

Dwarf Mesquite (Prosopis farcta)

White Broom (Retama raetam)

Purple Clover (Trifolium purpureum)

Pink Clover (Trifolium resupinatum)

Starry Clover (Trifolium stellatum)

Star Trigonel (Trigonella stellata)

Oaks

Kermes Oak (Quercus coccifera)

Valonia Oak (Quercus ithaburensis)

Common Walnut (Juglans regia)

Giant Milkweed (Calotropis procera)

Caralluma (Caralluma europaea)

Sinai Milkweed (Gomphocarpus sinaicus)

Oleander (Nerium oleander)

Blue Woodruff (Asperula arvensis)

Cleavers (Galium aparine)

Bristly Crosswort (Valantia hispida)

Cranesbills

Syrian Bear’s Breech (Acanthus syriacus)

Eyelash plant (Blepharis ciliaris)

Mint Family

Mint Family Intro

Chian Bugle (Ajuga chia)

Eastern Bugle (Ajuga orientalis)

Common Black Horehound (Ballota undulata)

Jagged-leaved Phlomis (Eremostachys laciniata)

Henbit Deadnettle (Lamium amplexicaule)

Musk Deadnettle (Lamium moschatum)

White Horehound (Marrubium vulgare)

Horse Mint (Mentha longifolia)

Phlomis (Phlomis)

Sages

Sage Intro (Salvia)

Dominica Sage (Salvia dominica)

Jerusalem Sage (Salvia hierosolymitana)

Turnip-leaved Sage (Salvia napifolia)

Annual Sage (Salvia viridis)

Felty Germander (Teucrium polium)

Wild Olive (Olea europaea)

Broomrape Family

Plantains (Plantago)

Speedwells (Veronica)

Figworts (Scrophularia)

Mulleins (Verbascum)

Common Verbena (Verbena officinalis)

Androcymbium (Androcymbium palaestinum)

Colchicum (Colchicum)

Persian Bells (Fritillaria persica)

Gagea (Gagea)

Eyed Tulip (Tulipa agenensis)

Common Smilax (Smilax aspera)

Spurges (Euphorbia)

Castor Oil Plant (Ricinus communis)

Hairy Pink Flax (Linum pubescens)

Poplars

White Poplar (Populus alba)

Firat Poplar (Populus euphratica)

Black Poplar (Populus nigra)

Sweet Violet (Viola odorata)

Rock Rose Family

Rock Rose Family Intro

Hoary Rock Rose (Cistus creticus)

Pink Sunrose (Helianthemum vesicarium)

Hollyhocks (Alcea)

Common Mallow (Malva sylvestris)

Linear-leaved Daphne (Daphne linearifolia)

Spur Flax (Thymelaea hirsuta)

Bermuda-buttercup (Oxalis pes-caprae)

Conifers

Conifers Intro

Mediterranean Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens)

Phoenician Juniper (Juniperus phoenicea)

Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis)

Sedges (Cyperus)

Grass Family

Common Reed (Phragmites australis)

Cattails (Typha)

Black Maidenhair Fern (Adiantum capillus-veneris)

Poppy Family

Poppy Family Intro

Common Fumitory (Fumaria officinalis)

Horned Poppies (Glaucium)

Sicklefruit Hypecoum (Hypecoum imberbe)

Poppies (Papaver)

Roemeria (Roemeria hybrida)

Buttercup Family

Pheasant’s-eyes (Adonis)

Crown Anemone (Anemone coronaria)

Larkspurs (Delphinium)

White Water-buttercup (Ranunculus aquatilis)

Asian Buttercup (Ranunculus asiaticus)

Jerusalem Buttercup (Ranunculus millefolius)

Common Fig (Ficus carica)

Mulberries (Morus)

Jujubes (Ziziphus)

Hawthorns (Crataegus)

Almond (Prunus dulcis)

Syrian Pear (Pyrus syriaca)

Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius)

Thorny Burnet (Sarcopoterium spinosum)

Roman Nettle (Urtica pilulifera)

Acacia Strap Flower (Loranthus acaciae)

White Osyris (Osyris alba)

Pistachios (Pistacia)

Harmal (Peganum harmala)

Small-Fruited Stonecrop (Sedum microcarpum)

Red Stonecrop (Sedum rubens)

Common Pennywort (Umbilicus intermedius)

Bindweeds (Convolvulus)

Nightshade Family

Nightshade Family Intro

Angel’s-trumpet (Datura innoxia)

Golden Henbane (Hyoscyamus aureus)

Egyptian Henbane (Hyoscyamus reticulatus)

Arabian Boxthorn (Lycium shawii)

Autumn Mandrake (Mandragora autumnalis)

Tree Tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)

Silverleaf Nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium)

Black Nightshade (Solanum nigrum)

Hairy Nightshade (Solanum villosum)

Soft Fagonia (Fagonia mollis)

Bushy Bean-Caper (Zygophyllum dumosum)

Fauna

Invertebrates

Invertebrates Intro

Annelids

Annelids Intro

Earthworms

Leeches

Mollusks

Mollusks Intro

Freshwater Snails

Land Slugs

Land Snails

Crustaceans

Crustaceans Intro

Crabs

Pill Bugs

Woodlice

Myriapods

Myriapods Intro

Millipedes

Centipedes

House Centipede (Scutigera coleoptrata)

Arachnids

Arachnids Intro

Spiders

Spiders Intro

Woodlouse Spider (Dysdera crocata)

Wolf Spider

Orb-weaver Spiders

Daddy Long-legs Spiders

Fishing Spiders (Dolomedes)

Jumping Spiders

Long-jawed Orb Weavers (Tetragnatha)

False Widow Spiders (Steatoda)

Crab Spiders

Tmarus Spiders (Tmarus)

Camel Spiders

Mites

Harvestmen

Scorpions

Insects

Insects Intro

Larva

Pupa

Eyes and Ocelli

Wings, Halteres, and Elytra

Alates

Grasshoppers

Crickets

Katydids

Lice

Beetles

Beetles Intro

Jewel Beetles

Soldier Beetles

Ground Beetles

Tiger Beetles

Longhorn Beetles

Leaf Beetles

Checkered Beetles

Seven-spot Ladybird (Coccinella septempunctata)

Snout Beetles

Bumble Bee Scarab Beetles

Blister Beetles

Scarabs

Flower Beetles

Leaf Chafers

Rove Beetles

Darkling Beetles

Net-winged

Net-winged Intro

Green Lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea)

Mantid Lacewings

Antlions

Thread-winged Antlions

Bugs

Bugs Intro

Aphids

Arabian Cicada (Platypleura arabica)

Scale Insects

Water Striders

Hoppers

Seed Bugs

Capsid Bugs

Backswimmers

Firebugs

Assassin Bugs

Shield and Stink Bugs

Dragonflies

Damselflies

Ants, Bees, and Wasps

Ants, Bees, and Wasps Intro

Ants

Desert Ants (Cataglyphis)

Honey Bees (Apis)

Carpenter Bees (Xylocopa)

Sand Wasps (Bembix)

Thread-waisted Wasps

European Paper Wasp (Polistes dominulus)

Potter Wasps

Oriental Hornet (Vespa orientalis)

Mammoth Wasp (Megascolia)

Mosquitoes and Flies

Mosquitoes and Flies Intro

Mosquitoes

Crane Flies

Root-maggot Fly (Anthomyia pluvialis)

Robber Flies

Bee Flies

Blow Flies

Lesser House Flies

House Flies (Musca domestica)

Stable Fly (Stomoxys calcitrans)

Moth Flies

Flesh Flies

Hoverflies

Deer Fly (Chrysops flavipes)

Horse Flies

Cockroaches and Termites

German Cockroach (Blattella germanica)

Oriental Cockroach (Blatta orientalis)

Egyptian Desert Roach (Polyphaga aegyptiaca)

Termites

Earwigs

Fleas

Moths

Moths Intro

Crimson-speckled Flunkey (Utetheisa pulchella)

Woolly Bears

Tent Caterpillar

Bagworm Moths

Plume Moths

Burnet Moths

Butterflies

Butterflies Intro

Skipper Butterflies

Gossamer-winged Butterflies

Four-footed Butterflies

Swallowtail Butterflies

Whites and Sulphurs

Mantises

Praying Mantises

Desert Mantises

Vertebrates

Vertebrates Intro

Fish

Freshwater Fish

Freshwater Fish Intro

Redbelly Tilapia (Tilapia zilli)

North African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

Carp Fish (Garra rufa)

Azraq Toothcarp (Aphanius sirhani)

Red Sea Fish

Amphibians

Amphibians Intro

Green Toad (Bufo viridis)

Middle East Tree Frog (Hyla savignyi)

Levant Water Frog (Pelophylax bedriagae)

Reptiles

Reptiles Intro

Agamid Lizards

Agamid Lizards Intro

Arabian Toad-headed Agama (Phrynocephalus arabicus)

Sinai Agama (Pseudotrapelus sinaitus)

Starred Agama (Stellagama stellio)

Pale Agama (Trapelus pallidus)

Persian Agama (Trapelus persicus)

Syrian Agama (Trapelus ruderatus)

Egyptian Dabb Lizard (Uromastyx aegyptius)

European Legless Lizard (Pseudopus apodus)

True Lizards

True Lizards Intro

Fringe-toed Lizards (Acanthodactylus)

Short-nosed Sand Lizard (Mesalina brevirostris)

Lebanon lizard (Phoenicolacerta laevis)

Geckos

Geckos Intro

Rough-tailed Gecko (Cyrtopodion scabrum)

Turkish Gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus)

Spotted Fan-footed Gecko (Ptyodactylus guttatus)

Southern Fan-footed Gecko (Ptyodactylus hasselquistii)

Northern Fan-footed Gecko (Ptyodactylus puiseuxi)

Skinks

Skinks Intro

Festa’s Skink (Ablepharus rueppellii)

Sandfish (Scincus scincus meccensis)

Bridled Skink (Trachylepis vittata)

Desert Monitor (Varanus griseus)

Common Chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleon recticrista)

Snakes

Snakes Intro

Palaearctic Tail-lined (Coluber ravergieri)

Crowned Dwarf Racer (Eirenis coronella)

Roth’s Dwarf Racer (Eirenis rothi)

Coin Snake (Hemorrhois nummifer)

Dice Snake (Natrix tessellata)

Schokari Sand Racer (Psammophis schokari)

Diadem Snake (Spalerosophis diadema)

Arabian Tiger Snake (Telescopus dhara)

Arabian Horned Viper (Cerastes gasperettii)

Painted Saw-scaled Viper (Echis coloratus)

False Horned Viper (Pseudocerastes persicus)

Palestinian Viper (Vipera palaestinae)

Turtles

Turtles Intro

Striped-neck Terrapin (Mauremys caspica)

Levantine Tortoise (Testudo graeca terrestris)

Birds

Birds Intro

Sexual Dimorphism

Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus)

Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo)

Pelicans and Allies

Great White Egret (Ardea alba)

Gray Heron (Ardea cinerea)

Squacco Heron (Ardeola ralloides)

Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis)

Little Egret (Egretta garzetta)

Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax)

Great White Pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus)

Common Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia)

White Stork (Ciconia ciconia)

Ducks

Wigeon (Anas penelope)

Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)

Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula)

Common Shelduck (Tadorna tadorna)

Eagles and Allies

Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

Short-toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus)

Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus)

Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus)

Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)

Falcons and Allies

Barbary Falcon (Falco pelegrinoides)

Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)

Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus)

Fowl

Chukar (Alectoris chukar)

Sand Partridge (Ammoperdix heyi)

Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)

Sandgrouse

Pin-tailed Sandgrouse (Pterocles alchata)

Spotted Sandgrouse (Pterocles senegallus)

Common Crane (Grus grus)

Coots and Allies

Eurasian Coot (Fulica atra)

Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus)

Spotted Crake (Porzana porzana)

Plovers and Allies

Little Ringed Plover (Charadrius dubius)

Spur-winged Plover (Vanellus spinosus)

Northern Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus)

Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus)

Pied Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta)

Stone Curlew (Burhinus oedicnemus)

Ruff (Philomachus pugnax)

Gulls

Doves and Pigeons

Rock Pigeon (Columba livia)

Laughing Dove (Spilopelia senegalensis)

Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)

Turtle Dove (Streptopelia turtur)

Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri)

Common Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus)

Owls

Owls Intro

Little Owl (Athene noctua)

Eurasian Eagle-owl (Bubo bubo)

Eurasian Scops Owl (Otus scops)

Tawny Owl (Strix aluco)

Barn Owl (Tyto alba)

European Nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus)

Swifts

Common Swift (Apus apus)

Alpine Swift (Tachymarptis melba)

Kingfishers and Allies

Common Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis)

Pied Kingfisher (Ceryle rudis)

European Roller (Coracias garrulus)

White-throated Kingfisher (Halcyon smyrnensis)

European Bee-eater (Merops apiaster)

Little Green Bee-eater (Merops orientalis)

Common Hoopoe (Upupa epops)

Woodpeckers and Allies

Syrian Woodpecker (Dendrocopos syriacus)

Wryneck (Jynx torquilla)

Perching Birds

Larks

Greater Hoopoe-lark (Alaemon alaudipes)

Bar-tailed Lark (Ammomanes cincturus)

Desert Lark (Ammomanes deserti)

Temminck’s Lark (Eremophila bilopha)

Crested Lark (Galerida cristata)

Crows and Allies

Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix)

Carrion Crow (Corvus corone)

Jackdaw (Corvus monedula)

Fan-tailed Raven (Corvus rhipidurus)

Brown-necked Raven (Corvus ruficollis)

House Crow (Corvus splendens)

Eurasian Jay (Garrulus glandarius)

Buntings

Cretzschmar’s Bunting (Emberiza caesia)

Corn Bunting (Emberiza calandra)

House Bunting (Emberiza striolata)

Finches

Trumpeter Finch (Bucanetes githagineus)

Common Linnet (Carduelis cannabina)

European Goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis)

Greenfinch (Carduelis chloris)

Sinai Rosefinch (Carpodacus synoicus)

Swallows

Red-rumped Swallow (Cecropis daurica)

Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica)

Rock Martin (Ptyonoprogne fuligula)

Shrikes

Red-backed Shrike (Lanius collurio)

Great Gray Shrike (Lanius excubitor)

Masked Shrike (Lanius nubicus)

Woodchat Shrike (Lanius senator)

Arabian Babbler (Turdoides squamiceps)

Wagtails and Allies

Red-throated Pipit (Anthus cervinus)

Long-billed Pipit (Anthus similis)

White Wagtail (Motacilla alba)

Wheatears and Allies

Blackstart (Cercomela melanura)

Robin (Erithacus rubecula)

Bluethroat (Luscinia svecica)

Blue Rock-thrush (Monticola solitarius)

Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata)

Desert Wheatear (Oenanthe deserti)

Finch’s Wheatear (Oenanthe finschii)

Black-eared Wheatear (Oenanthe hispanica)

Isabelline Wheatear (Oenanthe isabellina)

White-crowned Black Wheatear (Oenanthe leucopyga)

Mourning Wheatear (Oenanthe lugens)

Red-rumped Wheatear (Oenanthe moesta)

Hooded Wheatear (Oenanthe monacha)

Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe)

Common Redstart (Phoenicurus phoenicurus)

African Stonechat (Saxicola torquatus)

Palestine Sunbird (Cinnyris osea)

Tits

Eurasian Blue Tit (Cyanistes caeruleus)

Great Tit (Parus major)

Sparrows

House Sparrow (Passer domesticus)

Spanish Sparrow (Passer hispaniolensis)

Rock Sparrow (Petronia petronia)

White-spectacled Bulbul (Pycnonotus xanthopygos)

Tristram’s Starling (Onychognathus tristramii)

Eurasian Wren (Troglodytes troglodytes)

Eurasian Blackbird (Turdus merula)

Warblers and Allies

Scrub Warbler (Scotocerca inquieta)

Graceful Prinia (Prinia gracilis)

Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla)

Orphean Warbler (Sylvia hortensis)

Sardinian Warbler (Sylvia melanocephala)

Arabian Ostrich (Struthio camelus syriacus)

Mammals

Mammals Intro

Hoofed Mammals

Hoofed Mammals Intro

Arabian Camel (Camelus dromedarius)

Cattle (Bos taurus)

Domestic Goat (Capra aegagrus)

Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana)

Gazelles (Gazella)

Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx)

Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries)

Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus)

Wild Boar (Sus scrofa)

Arabian Horse (Equus ferus caballus)

Persian Onager (Equus hemionus onager)

Donkey (Equus africanus asinus)

Syrian Wild Ass (Equus hemionus hemippus)

Insectivores

Insectivores Intro

Hedgehogs

Shrews

Arabian Hare (Lepus capensis)

Rodents

Rodents Intro

Jerboas ( Dipodidae)

Crested Porcupine (Hystrix cristata)

Golden Spiny Mouse (Acomys russatus)

House Mouse (Mus musculus)

Fat Sand Rat (Psammomys obesus)

Rats (Rattus)

Persian Squirrel (Sciurus anomalus)

Middle East Blind Mole-rat (Spalax ehrenbergi)

Bats

Bats Intro

Egyptian Fruit Bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus)

Mediterranean Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus euryale)

Carnivores

Carnivores Intro

Canines

Canines Intro

Golden Jackal (Canis aureus)

Arabian Wolf (Canis lupus arabs)

Saluki (Canis lupus f.)

Canaan Dog (Canis lupus familiaris)

Sand Fox (Vulpes rueppelli)

Arabian Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes arabica)

Fennec Fox (Vulpes zerda)

Felines

Felines Intro

Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

Caracal (Caracal caracal)

Jungle Cat (Felis chaus)

Sand Cat (Felis margarita)

Arabian Wildcat (Felis silvestris)

Arabian Leopard (Panthera pardus nimr)

Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena sultana)

Mustelids

Mustelids Intro

European Otter (Lutra lutra)

Beech Marten (Martes foina)

European Badger (Meles meles)

Honey Badger (Mellivora capensis)

Rock Hyrax (Procavia capensis)

Tracks

Tracks Intro

Legless Invertebrates

Many-legged Invertebrates

Eight-legged Invertebrates

Six-legged Insects

Amphibians

Turtles

Lizards

Snakes

Birds

Hoofed Mammals

Hares

Rodents

Canines

Felines

Mustelids

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