Horse flies are generally characterized by large compound eyes, veins that form a ‘Y’ at the tip of the wings, and scissor-like mouthparts. Males are distinguished from females by eyes that meet at the top of the head.
The females of most horse fly species bite humans and livestock to feed on blood.
Adults are pollinators that feed on nectar. The females of most horse fly species also feed on blood. Larvae feed on insects, worms, and snails.
Common in warm regions near water, including wadis of western Jordan and the Azraq region. The larvae of most horse fly species are aquatic.