Early Inhabitants Intro
مقدمة السكان الأوائل
001- Early Inhabitants
The earliest evidence of humans in Jordan dates to over half a million years ago. Stone tools made by pre-modern humans from this period have been found mostly in the once lush hunting plains of central Jordan.
Around 70,000 years ago, modern humans (Homo sapiens) began to spread out from Africa, driving pre-modern humans to extinction during the next 40,000 years. Around 10,000 years ago, modern humans began to settle in small farming communities; archaeological remains of early houses from this period have been discovered in over 150 sites in Jordan.
Around 5,500 years ago, climate changes created the region’s dry deserts and drove the human population to concentrate in the Fertile Crescent, a geographical area watered by the Nile, Jordan, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers. The establishment of larger communities led to the dawn of civilization in Mesopotamia and Egypt, and to the transition from the Stone to the Copper and Bronze Age around 5,000 years ago, and then to the Iron Age around 3,000 years ago.
Jordan’s strategic location on trade routes gave rise to the Nabateans over 2,000 years ago and linked what is now Jordan to several classical civilizations, including the Sumerian, Babylonian, Egyptian, Persian, Greek, Roman, Byzantine, and Arab civilizations.