English

Field Guide to Jordan

Geology

Sediment

Ancient Lakes

Topography

Ancient Seabed

Fossilized Ripples

Volcanos

Volcanic Cones

Sills and Dikes

Volcanic Plugs

Lava Caves

Metal Deposits

Volcanos Intro

Crystals

Hot Springs

Lava Flow

Ancient Pebbles

Geological History

Impact Crater

Uplift

Cross-bedding

Deserts

Fossil Water

Aridification

Desert Pavement

Deserts Intro

Desert Varnish

Concretions

Fossils

Erosion

Alluvium

Scree

Mesas

Hoodoos

Tafoni

Onion-Skin Weathering

Natural Bridges

Alluvial Fans

Fracture Caves

Erosion Intro

Sinkholes

Solution Caves

Solution Weathering

Rocks

Marble

Limestone

Basalt

Conglomerate rock

Mudstone and Shale

Chert and Flint

Sandstone

Rock Identification

Breccia

Granite

Liesegang Banding

Fold

Dead Sea

Bitumen

Lisan Formation

Dead Sea Intro

Pink Water

Health Effects

Salts and Minerals

Dead Sea Graben

Evaporation Ponds

Salt Formations

Ancient Sea

Basins

Archaeology

Byzantine Period

Umm al-Rasas

Iconoclasm

Baptism Site

Archaeological Park

Petra Churches

Byzantine Period Intro

Jerash Churches

Church of St. George

Church of the Apostles

Greek Period

Greek Period Intro

Qasr al-Abd

Early Inhabitants

Menhirs

Kites

Early Inhabitants Intro

Ain Ghazal

Dolmens

Natufian Culture

Beida

Roman Period

Decapolis

Decapolis Intro

Jerash

South Theater

Colonnaded Streets

Propylaeum

North Gate and Beyond

Artemis Temple

Nymphaeum

Macellum

Cathedral

Hippodrome

Jerash Intro

Hadrian’s Arch

North Theater

Oval Plaza

Column Styles

South Gate and City Walls

Zeus Temple

South Tetrapylon

North Tetrapylon

Water-powered Saw

Amman

Umm Qais

Pella

Roman Forts

Via Nova Traiana

Azraq Fort

Lejjun Fortress

Burqu’ Fort

Machaerus Fortress

Bshir Fort

Roman Forts Intro

Umm al-Jimal

Roman Period Intro

Early Islamic Period

Hallabat Palace

Amra Palace

Mushatta Palace

Ayla

Harrana Palace

Sugar Mills

Qastal Palace

Toba Palace

Early Islamic Period Intro

The Palace

Petra

Theater

Tombs

Byzantine Churches

Petroglyphs

Water

Petra Intro

Treasury

Arab Wall

Siq

Board Games

High Places

Monastery

Unfinished Tomb

Great Temple

Little Petra

Humeima

Temple of Dushara

Writing

Ottoman Period

Ottoman Period Intro

Hejaz Railway

Qasr Shabib

Jiza Fort

Dab’a Fort

Hasa Fort

Ma’an Fort

Qatranah Fort

Crusades

Aqaba Fort

Rabadh Castle

Habis and High Place Castles

Karak Castle

Shobak Castle

Crusades Intro

Wadi Musa Castle

Iron Age Kingdoms

King’s Highway

Sela

Rabbath Ammon

Bozrah

Deir Alla

Shrine of Prophet Aaron

Dibon

Lot’s Cave

Mount Nebo

Lehun

Iron Age Kingdoms Intro

Finan Copper Mines

Environment

Sky and Clouds

Cloud Type

Cumulus

Cloud Type Intro

Stratus

Cirrus

Sun Navigation

Star Navigation

Cloud Altitude

Towering Clouds

Low Clouds

High Clouds

Middle Clouds

Climate

Dust Devil

Khamseen

Climate Intro

Flash Flood

Parks and Reserves

Parks and Reserves Intro

Shomari Reserve

Azraq Wetland Reserve

Ajloun Woodland Reserve

Mujib Nature Reserve

Wadi Rum Protected Area

Dibbin Nature Reserve

Dana Nature Reserve

Habitats

Deserts

Dead Sea

Jordan River Valley

Reservoirs

Southern Highlands

Human Environment

Red Sea

Wadis

Northern Highlands

Habitats Intro

Human Impact

Hunting

Litter and Pollution

Urban Sprawl

Field Etiquette

Threatened Species

Desertification

Water Shortage

Introduced Species

Flora

Classification

Algae

Moss

Mushroom

Lichen

Plant Gall

Fasciation

Flower to Fruit

Arum Family

Sago Pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata)

Celery Family

Madonna Flower (Artedia squamata)

Ferula (Ferula)

Hairy-seeded Chervil (Chaerophyllum trichospermum)

Celery Family Intro

Common Parsley (Petroselinum crispum)

Syrian Eryngo (Eryngium creticum)

Venus-comb (Scandix pecten-veneris)

Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera)

Orchid Family

Anatolian Orchid (Orchis anatolica)

Sword-leaved Helleborine (Cephalanthera longifolia)

Bee Orchids (Ophrys)

Orchid Family Intro

Pink Butterfly Orchid (Anacamptis papilionacea)

Fan-Lipped Orchid (Anacamptis collina)

Hyacinth Family

Grape Hyacinth (Muscari neglectum)

Sea Squill (Drimia maritima)

Bellevalia (Bellevalia)

Hyacinth Family Intro

Tassel Hyacinth (Leopoldia bicolor)

Star of Bethlehem (Ornithogalum)

Iris Family

Iris Family Intro

Spanish Nut (Moraea sisyrinchium)

Vartan Iris (Iris vartanii)

Black Iris (Iris nigricans)

Mesopotamian Iris (Iris mesopotamica)

Gilead Iris (Iris atrofusca)

Winter Crocus (Crocus hyemalis)

Italian Gladiolus (Gladiolus italicus)

Violet Gladiolus (Gladiolus atroviolaceus)

Garlic Family

Sternbergia (Sternbergia)

Black Garlic (Allium aschersonianum)

Naples Garlic (Allium neapolitanum)

Garlic Family Intro

Chinese Sacred Lily (Narcissus tazetta)

Yellow Asphodel (Asphodeline lutea)

Aloe vera (Aloe vera)

Common Asphodel (Asphodelus aestivus)

Sunflower Family

Sunflower Family Intro

Thistles

Thistles Intro

Star Thistles

Syrian Cornflower (Centaurea cyanoides)

Star Thistles Intro (Centaurea)

Eryngo Star-thistle (Centaurea eryngioides)

Carline Thistles (Carlina)

Moab Cousinia (Cousinia moabitica)

Globe Thistles (Echinops)

Gundelia (Gundelia tournefortii)

Syrian Thistle (Notobasis syriaca)

Cotton Thistles (Onopordum)

Soldier Thistle (Picnomon acarna)

Spiny Cocklebur (Xanthium spinosum)

Common Cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium)

Yarrows (Achillea)

Chamomiles (Anthemis)

Gold Coins (Asteriscus)

Marigolds (Calendula)

Dwarf Chicory (Cichorium pumilum)

Aromatic Inula (Dittrichia viscosa)

Flax-leaf Fleabane (Erigeron bonariensis)

Red Everlasting (Helichrysum sanguineum)

Koelpinia (Koelpinia linearis)

Golden Chamomile (Matricaria aurea)

Wave-leaved Fleabane (Pulicaria incisa)

Pink Viper’s Grass (Scorzonera papposa)

Dandelions (Taraxacum)

Goatsbeards (Tragopogon)

Goldy-Locks (Varthemia iphionoides)

Bellflower Family

Borage Family

Golden Drop (Onosma orientalis)

Borage Family Intro

Comfrey (Symphytum brachycalyx)

Judaean Bugloss (Echium judaeum)

European Turnsole (Heliotropium europaeum)

Italian Bugloss (Anchusa azurea)

Prickly Bugloss (Anchusa strigosa)

Egyptian Bugloss (Anchusa aegyptiaca)

Boissier Borage (Trichodesma boissieri)

Strigose Alkanet (Alkanna strigosa)

German Madwort (Asperugo procumbens)

Blue Hound’s Tongue (Cynoglossum creticum)

Mustard Family

Mustards

Buckler Mustard (Biscutella didyma)

Arugula (Eruca sativa)

Stocks (Matthiola)

Zilla (Zilla spinosa)

Egyptian Farsetia (Farsetia aegyptiaca)

Mustard Family Intro

Whitetop (Lepidium draba)

Common Malcolmia (Malcolmia crenulata)

Capers (Capparis)

Ben Tree (Moringa peregrina)

Taily Weed (Ochradenus baccatus)

Common Purslane (Portulaca oleracea)

Carnation Family

Carnations and Pinks (Dianthus)

Algerian Tea (Paronychia argentea)

Arabic Baby’s Breath (Gypsophila arabica)

Sandwort (Minuartia picta)

Cow Basil (Vaccaria pyramidata)

Catchflies (Silene)

Amaranth Family

Halothamnus (Halothamnus hierochunticus)

Jointed Anabasis (Anabasis articulata)

Syrian Anabasis (Anabasis syriaca)

Thorny Saltwort (Noaea mucronata)

Nettleleaf Goosefoot (Chenopodiastrum murale)

Knotweed (Rumex cyprius)

Egyptian Sea-lavender (Limonium lobatum)

Tamarix (Tamarix)

Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus)

Ice Plant Family

Slender-leaved Iceplant (Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum)

Purslane-leaved Aizoon (Aizoon canariense)

Ice Plant Family Intro

Gourd Family

Squirting Cucumber (Ecballium elaterium)

Desert Gourd (Citrullus colocynthis)

Syrian Bryony (Bryonia syriaca)

Pincushion Flowers (Scabiosa)

Italian Honeysuckle (Lonicera etrusca)

Strawberry Trees (Arbutus)

Cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum)

Pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis)

Storax Tree (Styrax officinalis)

Legume Family

Legume Family Intro

Acacia Trees

Spiraled Acacia (Acacia raddiana)

Apple-ring Acacia (Faidherbia albida)

Umbrella Thorn Acacia (Vachellia tortilis)

Camelthorn (Alhagi maurorum)

Bean Clover (Anagyris foetida)

Spiny Milk-Vetch (Astragalus spinosus)

Milkvetches (Astragalus)

Spiny Broom (Calicotome villosa)

Carob (Ceratonia siliqua)

Common Horseshoe Vetch (Hippocrepis unisiliquosa)

Sweet Peas (Lathyrus)

Yellow Restharrow (Ononis natrix)

Spiny Restharrow (Ononis spinosa)

Dwarf Mesquite (Prosopis farcta)

White Broom (Retama raetam)

Purple Clover (Trifolium purpureum)

Pink Clover (Trifolium resupinatum)

Starry Clover (Trifolium stellatum)

Star Trigonel (Trigonella stellata)

Oaks

Valonia Oak (Quercus ithaburensis)

Kermes Oak (Quercus coccifera)

Common Walnut (Juglans regia)

Blue Woodruff (Asperula arvensis)

Cleavers (Galium aparine)

Bristly Crosswort (Valantia hispida)

Sinai Milkweed (Gomphocarpus sinaicus)

Caralluma (Caralluma europaea)

Oleander (Nerium oleander)

Giant Milkweed (Calotropis procera)

Cranesbills

Syrian Bear’s Breech (Acanthus syriacus)

Eyelash plant (Blepharis ciliaris)

Plantains (Plantago)

Speedwells (Veronica)

Figworts (Scrophularia)

Mulleins (Verbascum)

Mint Family

Sages

Dominica Sage (Salvia dominica)

Turnip-leaved Sage (Salvia napifolia)

Annual Sage (Salvia viridis)

Sage Intro (Salvia)

Jerusalem Sage (Salvia hierosolymitana)

Common Black Horehound (Ballota undulata)

Mint Family Intro

Eastern Bugle (Ajuga orientalis)

Chian Bugle (Ajuga chia)

White Horehound (Marrubium vulgare)

Musk Deadnettle (Lamium moschatum)

Henbit Deadnettle (Lamium amplexicaule)

Jagged-leaved Phlomis (Eremostachys laciniata)

Phlomis (Phlomis)

Felty Germander (Teucrium polium)

Horse Mint (Mentha longifolia)

Broomrape Family

Wild Olive (Olea europaea)

Common Verbena (Verbena officinalis)

Common Smilax (Smilax aspera)

Androcymbium (Androcymbium palaestinum)

Colchicum (Colchicum)

Persian Bells (Fritillaria persica)

Eyed Tulip (Tulipa agenensis)

Gagea (Gagea)

Castor Oil Plant (Ricinus communis)

Spurges (Euphorbia)

Poplars

Black Poplar (Populus nigra)

Firat Poplar (Populus euphratica)

White Poplar (Populus alba)

Hairy Pink Flax (Linum pubescens)

Sweet Violet (Viola odorata)

Spur Flax (Thymelaea hirsuta)

Linear-leaved Daphne (Daphne linearifolia)

Common Mallow (Malva sylvestris)

Hollyhocks (Alcea)

Rock Rose Family

Hoary Rock Rose (Cistus creticus)

Rock Rose Family Intro

Pink Sunrose (Helianthemum vesicarium)

Bermuda-buttercup (Oxalis pes-caprae)

Conifers

Conifers Intro

Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis)

Mediterranean Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens)

Phoenician Juniper (Juniperus phoenicea)

Grass Family

Common Reed (Phragmites australis)

Cattails (Typha)

Sedges (Cyperus)

Black Maidenhair Fern (Adiantum capillus-veneris)

Poppy Family

Poppies (Papaver)

Horned Poppies (Glaucium)

Poppy Family Intro

Sicklefruit Hypecoum (Hypecoum imberbe)

Common Fumitory (Fumaria officinalis)

Roemeria (Roemeria hybrida)

Buttercup Family

Asian Buttercup (Ranunculus asiaticus)

Jerusalem Buttercup (Ranunculus millefolius)

White Water-buttercup (Ranunculus aquatilis)

Crown Anemone (Anemone coronaria)

Larkspurs (Delphinium)

Pheasant’s-eyes (Adonis)

Common Fig (Ficus carica)

Mulberries (Morus)

Roman Nettle (Urtica pilulifera)

Syrian Pear (Pyrus syriaca)

Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius)

Thorny Burnet (Sarcopoterium spinosum)

Almond (Prunus dulcis)

Hawthorns (Crataegus)

Jujubes (Ziziphus)

White Osyris (Osyris alba)

Acacia Strap Flower (Loranthus acaciae)

Harmal (Peganum harmala)

Pistachios (Pistacia)

Small-Fruited Stonecrop (Sedum microcarpum)

Red Stonecrop (Sedum rubens)

Common Pennywort (Umbilicus intermedius)

Nightshade Family

Golden Henbane (Hyoscyamus aureus)

Egyptian Henbane (Hyoscyamus reticulatus)

Silverleaf Nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium)

Hairy Nightshade (Solanum villosum)

Black Nightshade (Solanum nigrum)

Autumn Mandrake (Mandragora autumnalis)

Tree Tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)

Nightshade Family Intro

Arabian Boxthorn (Lycium shawii)

Angel’s-trumpet (Datura innoxia)

Bindweeds (Convolvulus)

Soft Fagonia (Fagonia mollis)

Bushy Bean-Caper (Zygophyllum dumosum)

Fauna

Invertebrates

Invertebrates Intro

Annelids

Annelids Intro

Leeches

Earthworms

Mollusks

Land Slugs

Freshwater Snails

Land Snails

Mollusks Intro

Crustaceans

Crustaceans Intro

Crabs

Pill Bugs

Woodlice

Myriapods

Myriapods Intro

Millipedes

House Centipede (Scutigera coleoptrata)

Centipedes

Arachnids

Arachnids Intro

Spiders

Spiders Intro

Tmarus Spiders (Tmarus)

Crab Spiders

Cellar Spiders

Fishing Spiders (Dolomedes)

Woodlouse Spider (Dysdera crocata)

Wolf Spider

Jumping Spiders

Orb-weaver Spiders

Long-jawed Orb Weavers (Tetragnatha)

False Widow Spiders (Steatoda)

Camel Spiders

Mites

Harvestmen

Scorpions

Insects

Insects Intro

Larva

Pupa

Eyes and Ocelli

Wings, Halteres, and Elytra

Alates

Grasshoppers

Crickets

Katydids

Lice

Beetles

Darkling Beetles

Beetles Intro

Tiger Beetles

Ground Beetles

Longhorn Beetles

Jewel Beetles

Checkered Beetles

Scarabs

Leaf Chafers

Flower Beetles

Blister Beetles

Rove Beetles

Seven-spot Ladybird (Coccinella septempunctata)

Snout Beetles

Leaf Beetles

Bumble Bee Scarab Beetles

Soldier Beetles

Net-winged

Mantid Lacewings

Green Lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea)

Thread-winged Antlions

Net-winged Intro

Antlions

Bugs

Seed Bugs

Firebugs

Aphids

Water Striders

Scale Insects

Hoppers

Arabian Cicada (Platypleura arabica)

Assassin Bugs

Bugs Intro

Capsid Bugs

Shield and Stink Bugs

Backswimmers

Dragonflies

Damselflies

Ants, Bees, and Wasps

Ants, Bees, and Wasps Intro

Ants

Desert Ants (Cataglyphis)

Honey Bees (Apis)

Carpenter Bees (Xylocopa)

Sand Wasps (Bembix)

Thread-waisted Wasps

European Paper Wasp (Polistes dominulus)

Oriental Hornet (Vespa orientalis)

Potter Wasps

Mammoth Wasp (Megascolia)

Mosquitoes and Flies

Mosquitoes and Flies Intro

Mosquitoes

Crane Flies

Root-maggot Fly (Anthomyia pluvialis)

Robber Flies

Bee Flies

Blow Flies

Lesser House Flies

House Flies (Musca domestica)

Stable Fly (Stomoxys calcitrans)

Moth Flies

Flesh Flies

Hoverflies

Horse Flies

Deer Fly (Chrysops flavipes)

Cockroaches and Termites

German Cockroach (Blattella germanica)

Termites

Oriental Cockroach (Blatta orientalis)

Egyptian Desert Roach (Polyphaga aegyptiaca)

Earwigs

Fleas

Moths

Moths Intro

Woolly Bears

Crimson-speckled Flunkey (Utetheisa pulchella)

Tent Caterpillar

Bagworm Moths

Plume Moths

Burnet Moths

Butterflies

Butterflies Intro

Skipper Butterflies

Gossamer-winged Butterflies

Four-footed Butterflies

Swallowtail Butterflies

Whites and Sulphurs

Mantises

Praying Mantises

Desert Mantises

Vertebrates

Vertebrates Intro

Fish

Freshwater Fish

Freshwater Fish Intro

Redbelly Tilapia (Tilapia zilli)

North African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

Carp Fish (Garra rufa)

Azraq Toothcarp (Aphanius sirhani)

Red Sea Fish

Amphibians

Levant Water Frog (Pelophylax bedriagae)

Green Toad (Bufo viridis)

Middle East Tree Frog (Hyla savignyi)

Amphibians Intro

Reptiles

Reptiles Intro

Agamid Lizards

Starred Agama (Stellagama stellio)

Pale Agama (Trapelus pallidus)

Persian Agama (Trapelus persicus)

Syrian Agama (Trapelus ruderatus)

Agamid Lizards Intro

Arabian Toad-headed Agama (Phrynocephalus arabicus)

Sinai Agama (Pseudotrapelus sinaitus)

Egyptian Dabb Lizard (Uromastyx aegyptius)

European Legless Lizard (Pseudopus apodus)

True Lizards

Lebanon lizard (Phoenicolacerta laevis)

Short-nosed Sand Lizard (Mesalina brevirostris)

Fringe-toed Lizards (Acanthodactylus)

True Lizards Intro

Geckos

Geckos Intro

Rough-tailed Gecko (Cyrtopodion scabrum)

Turkish Gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus)

Northern Fan-footed Gecko (Ptyodactylus puiseuxi)

Spotted Fan-footed Gecko (Ptyodactylus guttatus)

Southern Fan-footed Gecko (Ptyodactylus hasselquistii)

Skinks

Festa’s Skink (Ablepharus rueppellii)

Skinks Intro

Bridled Skink (Trachylepis vittata)

Sandfish (Scincus scincus meccensis)

Desert Monitor (Varanus griseus)

Common Chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleon recticrista)

Snakes

Snakes Intro

Dice Snake (Natrix tessellata)

Arabian Tiger Snake (Telescopus dhara)

Coin Snake (Hemorrhois nummifer)

Schokari Sand Racer (Psammophis schokari)

Diadem Snake (Spalerosophis diadema)

Roth’s Dwarf Racer (Eirenis rothi)

Crowned Dwarf Racer (Eirenis coronella)

Palaearctic Tail-lined (Coluber ravergieri)

False Horned Viper (Pseudocerastes persicus)

Painted Saw-scaled Viper (Echis coloratus)

Palestinian Viper (Vipera palaestinae)

Arabian Horned Viper (Cerastes gasperettii)

Turtles

Striped-neck Terrapin (Mauremys caspica)

Turtles Intro

Levantine Tortoise (Testudo graeca terrestris)

Birds

Birds Intro

Sexual Dimorphism

Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus)

Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo)

Pelicans and Allies

Little Egret (Egretta garzetta)

Squacco Heron (Ardeola ralloides)

Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax)

Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis)

Gray Heron (Ardea cinerea)

Great White Egret (Ardea alba)

Great White Pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus)

Common Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia)

White Stork (Ciconia ciconia)

Ducks

Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)

Wigeon (Anas penelope)

Common Shelduck (Tadorna tadorna)

Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula)

Eagles and Allies

Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus)

Short-toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus)

Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus)

Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)

Falcons and Allies

Barbary Falcon (Falco pelegrinoides)

Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)

Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus)

Fowl

Chukar (Alectoris chukar)

Sand Partridge (Ammoperdix heyi)

Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)

Sandgrouse

Pin-tailed Sandgrouse (Pterocles alchata)

Spotted Sandgrouse (Pterocles senegallus)

Coots and Allies

Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus)

Spotted Crake (Porzana porzana)

Eurasian Coot (Fulica atra)

Common Crane (Grus grus)

Plovers and Allies

Northern Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus)

Spur-winged Plover (Vanellus spinosus)

Little Ringed Plover (Charadrius dubius)

Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus)

Pied Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta)

Stone Curlew (Burhinus oedicnemus)

Ruff (Philomachus pugnax)

Gulls

Doves and Pigeons

Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)

Turtle Dove (Streptopelia turtur)

Rock Pigeon (Columba livia)

Laughing Dove (Spilopelia senegalensis)

Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri)

Common Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus)

Owls

Owls Intro

Barn Owl (Tyto alba)

Eurasian Scops Owl (Otus scops)

Tawny Owl (Strix aluco)

Little Owl (Athene noctua)

Eurasian Eagle-owl (Bubo bubo)

European Nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus)

Swifts

Common Swift (Apus apus)

Alpine Swift (Tachymarptis melba)

Kingfishers and Allies

European Bee-eater (Merops apiaster)

Little Green Bee-eater (Merops orientalis)

Common Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis)

Pied Kingfisher (Ceryle rudis)

Common Hoopoe (Upupa epops)

White-throated Kingfisher (Halcyon smyrnensis)

European Roller (Coracias garrulus)

Woodpeckers and Allies

Syrian Woodpecker (Dendrocopos syriacus)

Wryneck (Jynx torquilla)

Perching Birds

Larks

Desert Lark (Ammomanes deserti)

Bar-tailed Lark (Ammomanes cincturus)

Temminck’s Lark (Eremophila bilopha)

Crested Lark (Galerida cristata)

Greater Hoopoe-lark (Alaemon alaudipes)

Crows and Allies

Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix)

House Crow (Corvus splendens)

Fan-tailed Raven (Corvus rhipidurus)

Jackdaw (Corvus monedula)

Brown-necked Raven (Corvus ruficollis)

Carrion Crow (Corvus corone)

Eurasian Jay (Garrulus glandarius)

Buntings

House Bunting (Emberiza striolata)

Corn Bunting (Emberiza calandra)

Cretzschmar’s Bunting (Emberiza caesia)

Finches

Sinai Rosefinch (Carpodacus synoicus)

Greenfinch (Carduelis chloris)

Common Linnet (Carduelis cannabina)

European Goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis)

Trumpeter Finch (Bucanetes githagineus)

Swallows

Red-rumped Swallow (Cecropis daurica)

Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica)

Rock Martin (Ptyonoprogne fuligula)

Shrikes

Red-backed Shrike (Lanius collurio)

Masked Shrike (Lanius nubicus)

Woodchat Shrike (Lanius senator)

Great Gray Shrike (Lanius excubitor)

Arabian Babbler (Turdoides squamiceps)

Wagtails and Allies

Red-throated Pipit (Anthus cervinus)

Long-billed Pipit (Anthus similis)

White Wagtail (Motacilla alba)

Wheatears and Allies

Common Redstart (Phoenicurus phoenicurus)

Blue Rock-thrush (Monticola solitarius)

Bluethroat (Luscinia svecica)

Blackstart (Cercomela melanura)

Robin (Erithacus rubecula)

African Stonechat (Saxicola torquatus)

Finch’s Wheatear (Oenanthe finschii)

Desert Wheatear (Oenanthe deserti)

Black-eared Wheatear (Oenanthe hispanica)

Hooded Wheatear (Oenanthe monacha)

Red-rumped Wheatear (Oenanthe moesta)

Isabelline Wheatear (Oenanthe isabellina)

White-crowned Black Wheatear (Oenanthe leucopyga)

Mourning Wheatear (Oenanthe lugens)

Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe)

Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata)

Palestine Sunbird (Cinnyris osea)

Tits

Great Tit (Parus major)

Eurasian Blue Tit (Cyanistes caeruleus)

Sparrows

Rock Sparrow (Petronia petronia)

Spanish Sparrow (Passer hispaniolensis)

House Sparrow (Passer domesticus)

White-spectacled Bulbul (Pycnonotus xanthopygos)

Tristram’s Starling (Onychognathus tristramii)

Eurasian Wren (Troglodytes troglodytes)

Eurasian Blackbird (Turdus merula)

Warblers and Allies

Scrub Warbler (Scotocerca inquieta)

Graceful Prinia (Prinia gracilis)

Orphean Warbler (Sylvia hortensis)

Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla)

Sardinian Warbler (Sylvia melanocephala)

Arabian Ostrich (Struthio camelus syriacus)

Mammals

Mammals Intro

Hoofed Mammals

Hoofed Mammals Intro

Arabian Camel (Camelus dromedarius)

Gazelles (Gazella)

Domestic Goat (Capra aegagrus)

Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana)

Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx)

Cattle (Bos taurus)

Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries)

Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus)

Wild Boar (Sus scrofa)

Arabian Horse (Equus ferus caballus)

Persian Onager (Equus hemionus onager)

Donkey (Equus africanus asinus)

Syrian Wild Ass (Equus hemionus hemippus)

Insectivores

Insectivores Intro

Hedgehogs

Shrews

Arabian Hare (Lepus capensis)

Rodents

Jerboas ( Dipodidae)

Middle East Blind Mole-rat (Spalax ehrenbergi)

Rodents Intro

Crested Porcupine (Hystrix cristata)

Golden Spiny Mouse (Acomys russatus)

House Mouse (Mus musculus)

Fat Sand Rat (Psammomys obesus)

Rats (Rattus)

Persian Squirrel (Sciurus anomalus)

Bats

Bats Intro

Egyptian Fruit Bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus)

Mediterranean Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus euryale)

Carnivores

Canines

Golden Jackal (Canis aureus)

Canaan Dog (Canis lupus familiaris)

Arabian Wolf (Canis lupus arabs)

Saluki (Canis lupus f.)

Canines Intro

Arabian Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes arabica)

Sand Fox (Vulpes rueppelli)

Fennec Fox (Vulpes zerda)

Mustelids

Honey Badger (Mellivora capensis)

Mustelids Intro

Beech Marten (Martes foina)

European Badger (Meles meles)

European Otter (Lutra lutra)

Felines

Caracal (Caracal caracal)

Jungle Cat (Felis chaus)

Sand Cat (Felis margarita)

Arabian Wildcat (Felis silvestris)

Arabian Leopard (Panthera pardus nimr)

Felines Intro

Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

Carnivores Intro

Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena sultana)

Rock Hyrax (Procavia capensis)

Tracks

Snakes

Hoofed Mammals

Turtles

Many-legged Invertebrates

Lizards

Tracks Intro

Rodents

Canines

Birds

Six-legged Insects

Eight-legged Invertebrates

Amphibians

Mustelids

Felines

Legless Invertebrates

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